Many hospitalists provide palliative-care services to patients at the request of physicians within their own groups or from other specialists. Varying factors affect how hospitalists report these services—namely, the nature of the request and the type of service provided. Palliative-care programs can be quite costly as they involve several team members and a substantial amount of time delivering these services. Capturing services appropriately and obtaining reimbursement to help continue program initiatives is pertinent.
Nature of the Request
Members of a palliative-care team often are called on to provide management options to assist in reducing pain and suffering associated with both terminal and nonterminal disease, thereby improving a patient’s quality of life. When a palliative-care specialist is asked to provide an opinion or advice, the initial service could qualify as a consultation. However, all requirements must be met in order to report the service as an inpatient consultation (codes 99251-99255).
There must be a written request from a qualified healthcare provider involved in the patient’s care (e.g., a physician, resident, or nurse practitioner). In the inpatient setting, this request can be documented as a physician order or in the assessment of the requesting provider’s progress note. Standing orders for consultation are not permitted. Ideally, the requesting provider should identify the reason for a consult to support the medical necessity of the service.
Additionally, the palliative-care physician renders and documents the service, then reports findings to the requesting physician. The consultant’s required written report does not have to be sent separately to the requesting physician. Because the requesting physician and the consultant share a common medical record in an inpatient setting, the consultant’s inpatient progress note suffices the “written report” requirement.
One concern about billing consultations involves the nature of the request. If the requesting physician documents the need for an opinion or advice from the palliative-care specialist, the service can be reported as a consultation. If, however, the request states consult for “medical management” or “palliative management,” it’s less likely that payors will consider the service a consultation. In the latter situation, it appears as if the requesting physician is not seeking an opinion or advice from the consultant to incorporate into his own plan of care for the patient and would rather the consultant take over that portion of patient care.
Recently revised billing policies prevent the consultant from billing consults under these circumstances. Without a sufficient request for consultation, the palliative-care specialist can only report “subsequent” hospital care services.1 Language that better supports the consultative nature of the request is:
- Consult for an opinion or advice on palliative measures;
- Consult for evaluation of palliative options; and
- Consult palliative care for treatment options.
The requesting physician can be in the same or different provider group as the consultant. The consultant must possess expertise in an area beyond that of the requesting provider. Because the specialty designation for most hospitalists is internal medicine, palliative-care claims could be scrutinized more closely. This does not necessarily occur when the requesting provider has a different two-digit specialty designation (e.g., internal medicine and gastroenterology).2 Scrutiny is more likely to occur when the requesting provider has the same internal-medicine designation as the palliative-care consultant, even if they are in different provider groups.
Payor concern escalates when physicians of the same designated specialty submit claims for the same patient on the same date. Having different primary diagnosis codes attached to each visit level does not necessarily help. The payor is likely to deny the second claim received, pending a review of documentation. If this happens, the provider who received the denial should submit a copy of both progress notes for the date in question. Hopefully, the distinction between the services is demonstrated in the documentation.
Palliative services might involve obtaining and documenting the standard key components for visit-level selection: history, exam, and medical decision-making.3 However, the palliative-care specialist might spend more time providing counseling or coordination of care for a patient and family. When this occurs, the palliative-care specialist should not forget about the guidelines for reporting time-based services.4 Inpatient services may be reported on the basis of time, as long as a face-to-face service between the provider and the patient occurs. Consider the total time spent face to face with the patient, and the time spent obtaining, discussing, and coordinating patient care, while you are in the patient’s unit or floor.
As a reminder, document the total time, the amount of time spent counseling, and the details of discussion and coordination. The physician may count the time spent counseling the patient’s family regarding the treatment and care, as long as the focus is not emotional support for the family, the meeting takes place in the patient’s unit or floor, and the patient is present, unless there is medically supported reason for which the patient is unable to participate (e.g., cognitive impairment). The palliative-care specialist can then select the visit level based on time.5 (See Table 1, above.) TH
Carol Pohlig is a billing and coding expert with the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia. She is on the faculty of SHM’s inpatient coding course.
1. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare Claims Processing Manual: Chapter 12, Section 30.6.10. CMS Web site. Available at: www.cms.hhs.gov/manuals/downloads/clm104c12.pdf. Accessed Jan. 30, 2009.
2. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare Claims Processing Manual: Chapter 26, Section 10.8. CMS Web site. Available at: www.cms.hhs.gov/manuals/downloads/clm104c26.pdf. Accessed Jan. 30, 2009.
3. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Documentation Guidelines for Evaluation and Management Services. CMS Web site. Available at: www.cms.hhs.gov/MLNEdWebGuide/25_EMDOC.asp. Accessed Jan. 30, 2009.
4. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare Claims Processing Manual: Chapter 12, Section 30.6.1B. CMS Web site. Available at: www.cms.hhs.gov/manuals/downloads/clm104c12.pdf. Accessed Jan. 30, 2009.
5. Beebe M, Dalton J, Espronceda M, Evans D, Glenn R. Current Procedural Terminology Professional Edition. Chicago: American Medical Association Press; 2008.