CLINICAL QUESTION: Do antipsychotics provide symptomatic benefit for delirium in palliative care?
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics are frequently used for the treatment of delirium and guideline recommended for delirium-associated distress. However, a 2016 meta-analysis found antipsychotics are not associated with change in delirium duration or severity. Antipsychotics for palliative management of delirium at end of life is not well studied.
STUDY DESIGN: Double-blind randomized controlled trial with placebo, haloperidol, and risperidone arms.
SETTING: Eleven Australian inpatient hospice or palliative care services.
SYNOPSIS: 247 patients (mean age, 74.9 years; 88.3% with cancer) with advanced incurable disease and active delirium were studied. Most had mild-moderate severity delirium. All received nonpharmacological measures and plan to address reversible precipitants. Patients were randomized to placebo (84), haloperidol (81), or risperidone (82) for 72 hours. Dose titration was allowed based on delirium symptoms. In intention to treat analysis the delirium severity scores were statistically higher in haloperidol and risperidone arms, compared with placebo. This reached statistical significance although less than the minimum clinically significant difference. Mortality, use of rescue medicines, and extrapyramidal symptoms were higher in antipsychotic groups.
BOTTOM LINE: Antipsychotics cause side effects without efficacy in palliation of symptoms of delirium.
CITATIONS: Agar MR, Lawlor PG, Quinn S, et al. Efficacy of oral risperidone, haloperidol, or placebo for symptoms of delirium among patients in palliative care: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Jan;177:34-42.
Dr. Cumbler is the associate chief of hospital medicine, Division of Hospital Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora.