Clinical question: What is the incidence of antibiotic-associated adverse drug events (ADEs) among adult inpatients?
Background: Antibiotics are used widely in the inpatient setting, although 20%-30% of inpatient antibiotic prescription are estimated to be unnecessary. Data are lacking on the rates of associated ADEs.
Study design: Retrospective cohort study.
Synopsis: Of the 5,579 patients admitted to four inpatient medicine services between September 2013 and June 2014, 1,488 (27%) received antibiotics for at least 24 hours. Patients were followed through admission and out to 90 days. A total of 324 unique antibiotic-associated ADEs occurred among 298 (20%) patients within 90 days of initial therapy. The overall rate of antibiotic-associated ADEs was 22.9/10,000 person-days. The investigators determined that 287 (19%) of antibiotic regimens were not clinically indicated, and among those, there were 56 (20%) ADEs. The most common 30-day ADEs were gastrointestinal, renal, and hematologic. The highest proportion of ADEs occurred with beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, intravenous vancomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, perhaps reflecting how commonly these agents are prescribed. Nearly all ADEs were considered clinically significant (97%). There were no deaths attributable to antibiotic-associated ADEs.
Bottom line: Antibiotic associated ADEs occur in about one in five inpatients, and about one in five antibiotic prescriptions may not be clinically indicated.
Citation: Tamma PD et al. Association of adverse events with antibiotic use in hospitalized patients. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Sep 1;177(9):1308-15.
Dr. Anderson is an associate program director in the internal medicine residency training program at the University of Colorado School of Medicine and a hospitalist at the VA Eastern Colorado Health Care System in Denver.