From the Society

Ingredients for effective team-based care

Changing times for U.S. health care


The current health care environment is undergoing a rapid transformation. In evolutionary biology, a theory exists called punctuated equilibrium. This theory suggests there are long periods of little or no morphological change amongst species and then, geologically speaking, short periods of rapid change in response to pressures within the environment. This rapid period of change adds significant diversity to the landscape of existing species. In health care, we are undergoing a period of “punctuation.”

Dr. Chris Frost

A testament to the degree of change is a scan of the various consolidation activities occurring across the health care space. Some are more traditional, such as mergers of health systems with different or competing geographical footprints or hospitalist management companies that provide similar services and desire to increase their market share. Others that are more interesting are those that include mergers of seemingly different business lines or offerings, like CVS Health and Aetna; Humana and Kindred; or even organizations such as Amazon, Berkshire Hathaway, and JP Morgan hiring Atul Gawande as the CEO of their newly formed health care venture. The latter examples serve as an illustration of the reorganization that is occurring within health care delivery. This represents, at the very least, a blurring of the lines – if not a deconstruction and complete rebuild – of traditional lines of separation between payers, providers, employers, and retailers.

In other words, the silos are coming down, significant diversity in the landscape of existing species. A common theme across these changes is that most – if not all – participants will share some portion of the financial risk associated with these evolving models. High-deductible health plans, alternative payment models (APMs), and advanced APMs are examples of tactics and models that distribute the financial risk. The consolidations referenced above will likely continue to encourage distribution of the financial risk across patients, providers, employers, and payers.

A key theme coming into focus is that the evolving care delivery system will not be defined by bricks and mortar. Rather, it will follow the patient and go wherever he or she goes to meet his or her specific needs. This is why we’re seeing mergers comprised of a variety of assets, including personnel, technology, critical supplies (such as pharmaceuticals), and funding resources. This very purposeful and deliberate melting pot phenomenon will restructure and reformat the care delivery model.

To be successful within this new landscape, there will need to be a renewed focus on working within a collaborative model. The days of a single entity or provider being able to serve as the “be all” or “do all” is over, and the days of practicing medicine as the Lone Ranger are anachronistic. Instead, there is a need for health care providers to embrace and lead a team-based care model. Team-based care should have the patient at the center of the care delivery model and leverage the expertise of the various team members to practice at the “top of their expertise.”

In hospital medicine, this includes a variety of team members – from physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and clinical pharmacists to case managers, physical therapists, subject matter experts in quality improvement, and analysts – who identify operational priorities from the data rather than reporting predefined goals on dashboards. Although possibly a good start, this is by no means an exhaustive list of team members. The team will be defined by the goals the health care team aspires to achieve. These goals may include closer alignment with payers, employers, and post-acute partners; the goals will influence the composition of the team. Once the team is defined, the challenge will be to effectively integrate team members, so they are contributing their expertise to the patient care being delivered.

Some ingredients for effective team-based care include the following:


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