SHM Converge

A primer on COVID-19 in hospitalized children



Converge 2021 session

COVID-19 in Children


Philip Zachariah, MD, MPH

Session summary

Children have been less severely affected by COVID-19 than adults (hospitalization rates around 5%). However, once hospitalized, ICU admission rates in children have been similar to adults, around 30%. Mortality has been 1%-2%. Risk factors for more severe acute SARS CoV-2 infections include age extremes, minorities, obesity, medical complexity, immunocompromised pediatric patients, and asthma.

Dr. Philip Zachariah

Multisystem-inflammatory-syndrome-in-children (MIS-C) continues to present among persistently febrile children with multisystem findings and the history of acute COVID-19 infection in prior 3-6 weeks. There seems to be a link between the immunological defects in type I and II interferon production, as autoantibodies to type I interferon may predispose to severe disease. Dr. Zachariah of Columbia University Medical Center in New York, discussed the recent study exploring intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) alone versus IVIG and steroids as treatment options for MIS-C. So far, the failure rates in IVIG-alone group were higher (51%) versus IVIG and steroids (9%).

Besides MIS-C, many neurological manifestations of COVID-19 have been seen among children including GBS, seizures, encephalitis, cranial neuropathies, and demyelination cases. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and pseudo-appendicitis have all been described in the literature, however, larger case control studied are needed.

In children, clinical vascular thrombotic events (VTEs) are rare. Anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis is suggested for hospitalized patients with COVID-19–related illness, whose D-dimer is >5 times upper limit of normal values and who have one or more non–COVID-19 related clinical risk factors for hospital acquired VTEs.

Dr. Mirna Giordano

Key takeaways

  • Once hospitalized, the ICU admission rates for children have been similar to those in adults, ~30%.
  • MIS-C is showing lower failure rates if treated with IVIG and steroids, and most reliable laboratory findings should be elevated C-reactive protein, lymphopenia, and elevated brain natriuretic peptide.
  • In hospitalized children with COVID-19, clinical VTEs are rare.

Dr. Giordano is an associate professor of pediatrics at Columbia University Medical Center in New York. She is a pediatric hospitalist with expertise in pediatric surgical comanagement

Recommended Reading

How to utilize the updated PHM Core Competencies
The Hospitalist
Small increase seen in new COVID-19 cases among children
The Hospitalist
CDC recommends use of Pfizer’s COVID vaccine in 12- to 15-year-olds
The Hospitalist
PHM groups issue Choosing Wisely® recommendations
The Hospitalist
COVID-19 in children: Weekly cases drop to 6-month low
The Hospitalist
Hospital outcomes for children with MIS-C unaffected by initial presentation site
The Hospitalist
Some things pediatric hospitalists do for no reason
The Hospitalist
The COVID-19 pandemic and changes in pediatric respiratory and nonrespiratory illnesses
The Hospitalist
Mortality trends in childhood after infant bacterial meningitis
The Hospitalist
Child suicides drive Colorado hospital to declare state of emergency
The Hospitalist
   Comments ()